Propolis or bee glue is a resinous mixture that honey bees collect from tree buds, sap flows, or Its color varies depending on its botanical source, the most common being dark brown. Propolis is sticky at and above room temperature, 20 °C (68 °F). At lower temperatures, it becomes hard and very brittle.
Propolis has been used as a medicinal agent since ancient times. It was used in folk medicine as early as 300 BC for cosmetic purposes, inflammation, and wound healing. It has been used internally and externally and is believed to kill bacteria, viruses, and fungi, to possess local anesthetic, antiulcer, and anti-inflammatory properties, and to lower blood pressure and stimulate the immune system.
Propolis exhibits antimicrobial action against gram-positive bacteria, yeasts, and some viruses. Commonly used in oral and dental preparations, propolis may have a role in reducing tooth decay and oral ulcers and in promoting the health of injured teeth. Cytotoxicity of propolis and its chemical constituents has been demonstrated to stop the growth of tumor in animals and tumor cell; however, clinical studies in human cancer are lacking. Immune system effects, antioxidant actions, and effects on the heart have also been described.